Position sensitive detectors (PSD) have been around for many years and their successful application to X-ray diffraction experiments has been well documented. Early PSD detector designs are based on fragile wire anode technology, problematic due to the fact that they are easily damaged by over exposure to X-rays and are often microphonic. To overcome these problems, we have pioneered a new technology in which the fragile wire anode has been replaced by an indestructible alloy "knife edge " blade anode which is non microphonic, does not suffer from over exposure to the X-ray beam and is very rugged. 

Inel curved position sensitive detectors enable diffraction experiments to be made on powders, solids and liquids in real time.

The detectors are curved about a segment of a circle allowing the user to select a detector that provides optimum resolution for each and every experiment including XRD, SAXS, WAXS, etc. When used as part of an X-ray  experiment Equinox  detectors will measure the entire diffraction pattern simultaneously.

Inel curved PSD detectors

The detectors have no moving parts and eliminate the need for mechanical scanning devices such as complex scanning goniometers used in conventional diffraction instruments. They do not require routine maintenance.


                                Principle of a CPS detector                                                   Principle of conventional point detector
                    Real-Time simultaneous data acquisition                                       Step-wise time-dependent acquisition

Description (linear and curved position sensitive detector)

Equinox PSD detectors are either a linear or curved chamber into which a solid blade anode and segmented cathode is mounted. Within the chamber there is also a cathode assembly and with the addition of argon / ethane gas, the detector can be defined as a proportional type detector.  When an X-ray photon becomes incident on the detector anode an electrical charge develops on the cathode at a position that is spatially coincident with the incident photon. This electrical charge can be measured in terms of its intensity and position about the anode / cathode by way of a delay line. This signal is digitized and then stored in an electronic card. The desired S:N is achieved by multiscan accumulation. In practice an excellent diffraction pattern can be recorded in just a few seconds and at very high resolution.
(linear and curved position sensitive detector)
Equinox PSD detectors are essentially spatial detectors used in such a way that they are made to directly intersect the diffracted, reflected or transmitted X-ray beam. The length or radius of the detector determines its spatial or angular position about the X-ray beam or 2 theta and the distance to the sample determines resolution. This unique design also provides an opportunity in diffraction experiments to limit the incident X-ray beam width on the sample to less than 100 microns with a conventional X-ray source and to less than 20 microns with a micro X-ray source and so provides a superb opportunity for micro diffraction experiments. To meet the needs of today's diffraction requirements we have designed detectors with differing lengths and curvatures providing a choice of resolutions from 0.04 to 0.1 degrees FWHM. There are many experiments that require linear detectors as an alternative to curved and to meet this need we have designed a range of detectors with varying anode lengths.

(linear and curved position sensitive detector)
Equinox detectors will find applications in all types of X-ray diffraction experiments and especially as a direct replacement for existing scanning goniometers using traditional single point detectors. They can also be used to upgrade an existing X-ray diffractometer when its useful life has come to an end but when the existing X-ray generator is still in good order. Or they can be used to extend the versatility of all XRD systems. A curved Equinox detector will bring an old diffractometer back to life providing years of extended use and very high performance. They can also be used to convert an existing diffraction system, enabling it to be used in kinetics experiments. Remember Equinox detectors measure all angles of diffraction simultaneously and are therefore perfect for kinetics and dynamic studies. The detectors can be used to substantially speed up analytical times enabling many samples to be analyzed in just a few seconds. Popular applications for linear detectors include SAXS, WAXS, Stress and many other similar experiments.

Synchrotron Applications (linear and curved position sensitive detector)
The blade (knife edge) anode technology used in Equinox detectors will allow general use with most or all synchrotron experiments. Unlike a wire anode detector the Equinox design is extremely rugged and in most circumstances will tolerate exposure to an intense X-ray beam.  In similar circumstances a wire or CCD detector will be completely destroyed.
On Line (linear and curved position sensitive detector)
Equinox detectors do not require a scanning goniometer and are therefore advantageous in any Online or Real Time application including mineral or cement analysis, pharmaceutical raw material production, phase change monitoring and much more.
Curvature radius
Angular range in 2

Resolution (degrees 2θ at FWHM)
Dynamic range
Energy resolution
Maximum count rate
Read noise
Minimum measure time
Temperature range
Curved Detectors
180mm - 250mm - 500mm
110° - 120° - 90°
0,12° - 0,08° - 0,05°
200.000 cps/sec
Streamer mode
200.000 cps
4 cps overall
1 second
115 / 230V 50/60 Hz
15 – 25 °C
Quantum efficiency
Energy range
Counts / channel
Quantum efficiency
Energy discrimination
Will it fit
Gas mix
Operating system

Curved Detectors
Up to 90%
5–17 KeV max 40 KeV
75% Cu Ka
Fits all existing diffractometers
Any orientation
Argon / Ethane
Windows 8 / 7 ...



T 001 603 778 9161
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Inel Inc, PO Box 147,
Stratham, 03885 NH, USA
T 001 603 778 9161 - F 001 603 778 9171